This article uses the U.S. Census Bureau’s definition of the Caribbean region, which includes Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, the former country of Guadeloupe (including St. Barthélemy and Saint-Martin), Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, the former country of the Netherlands Antilles (including Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten), St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and Turks and Caicos Islands. Available online. Beginning in 1943, thousands of migrant workers were brought from the region to work in American agriculture and thus help the wa… In 2017, 23 percent of Caribbean immigrants had not finished high school, compared to 28 percent of all immigrants and 9 percent of U.S.-born adults. There were many communities of people we now know as Caribs, including Galibi and various Arawakan speakers such as the Kalinago. Copyright © 2001-2020 Migration Policy Institute. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. 2017. Figure 7. Immigration Pathways of Caribbean Immigrants and All Immigrants in the United States, 2017. Table 1. Washington, DC: DHS Office of Immigration Statistics. Click on the bullet points below for more information: In the 2013–17 period, the majority of immigrants from the Caribbean lived in Florida (41 percent) or New York (26 percent). This anthology represents important and original directions in the study of Caribbean migration. United Nations Population Division. Caribbean immigrants are more likely to be employed in service occupations and production, transportation, and material moving occupations than the other two groups of workers (see Figure 5). Remittances sent to the Caribbean have grown steady since 1990 despite a small decline after the 2007-09 Great Recession. Working Paper No. Cubans intercepted at sea were returned to the island. In fiscal year (FY) 2017, 66 percent of the roughly 174,500 Caribbean immigrants who became lawful permanent residents (LPRs) that year did so as either immediate relatives or other family members of U.S. citizens or LPRs, the same rate as the new LPRs from all countries. The Caribs killed the Arawak men and enslaved the women, triggering another wave of migration that sent the Arawaks fleeing as far west as Cuba and … Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), 8,140 unauthorized Caribbean immigrants were active participants of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, which provides temporary deportation relief and work authorization. Duany, Jorge. The Caribbean diaspora in the United States is comprised of almost 8 million individuals who were either born in a Caribbean island nation or reported ancestry of a given country in the Caribbean, according to tabulations from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2017 ACS. Available online. 2018. The year 1838, gave rise to the first glimpse of a new class in Caribbean society Peasantry traced back in Caribbean history as noted by Woodville K. Marshall, gave insight on the development and establishment of a new social class which had profound affects on Caribbean societies abroad (Marshall, 1968, p99). 2018. Figure 4. 1400 16th St NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036 | ph. Health Coverage for Caribbean Immigrants, All Immigrants, and the Native Born, 2017. Migration has long been an important part of Caribbean culture and history. Available online. Jamaica, 21 August 1861 Cat ref: CO 137/356/25 f 189 Crown Copyright. Distribution of Caribbean Immigrants by Country of Birth, 2014. Between 1980 and 2000, the Caribbean immigrant population increased by more than 50 percent every ten years (54 percent and 52 percent, respectively) to reach 2.9 million in 2000. Click here for a map showing state and counties where unauthorized immigrants from select countries of origin reside in the United States. Indentured servants, political dissidents and others from the British Isles provided the first plantation labour. Approximately 21 percent of Caribbean adults had a bachelor’s degree or higher, versus 31 percent of all immigrant and 32 percent of native-born adults. Figure 8. The biggest migration to the Caribbean was a forced migration of enslaved people from Africa through the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Diversity Visa lottery: The Immigration Act of 1990 established the Diversity Visa lottery program to allow entry to immigrants from countries with low rates of immigration to the United States. Despatch regarding medical expenses for enslaved Africans captured on French ship La Belle. Caribbean culture is affected greatly by migration. Households headed by immigrants from Trinidad and Tobago ($61,300) had the highest median incomes, and Cuban ($41,800) and Dominican ($41,200) households had the lowest median incomes. Today, the region is subject to fluid internal as well as external movement of persons that migrate because of various causes : economic situation, human rights respect, government stability, and living conditions. Notes: Family-sponsored preference: Includes adult children and siblings of U.S. citizens as well as spouses and children of green-card holders. Most immigrants from the Dominican Republic (78 percent), Trinidad and Tobago (77 percent), and Jamaica and Haiti (76 percent each) were of working age, while more than one-quarter (27 percent) of Cuban immigrants were seniors (ages 65 and older). » “The History of Afro-Caribbean Migration to the United States,” in The Schomburg Center, ed., In Motion: The African American Migration Experience website (plus statistical tables, bibliography and weblinks, commissioned by and submitted to the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture). Seventy years ago today—June 22, 1948—a passenger ship carrying 492 Jamaican immigrants arrived in Essex, London. The early Caribbean was also a centre for piracy. Jamaica (2,800), the Bahamas (2,200), and the Dominican Republic (1,500) were the top three origin countries. Spotlights from MPI's online journal, the Migration Information Source, use the latest data to provide information on size, geographic distribution, and socioeconomic characteristics of particular immigrant groups, including English proficiency, educational and professional attainment, income and poverty, health coverage, and remittances. Letter ordering destruction of Carib lands, extract. Home More than 90 percent of Caribbean immigrants came from five countries: Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago (see Table 1). 2017 American Community Survey. In school year (SY) 2017-18, 11,300 Caribbean students were enrolled in U.S. higher educational institutions, representing 1 percent of the total 1.1 million international students. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. ---. 81, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, February 2006), available online. Bermuda, 1868-9 Cat ref: ADM 195/5 f 31 Crown Copyright. Data table, August 31, 2018. Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau (the most recent 2017 American Community Survey [ACS] as well as pooled 2013–17 ACS data) and the Department of Homeland Security’s Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, this Spotlight provides information on the Caribbean population in the United States, focusing on its size, geographic distribution, and socioeconomic characteristics. 202-266-1940 | fax. Eastern Caribbean emigrant families to New York and Toronto (MAB, 1981; Marshall, 1984a, 1984b). Annual Remittance Flows to Caribbean, 1970-2018. Not shown are the populations in Alaska and Hawaii, which are small in size; for details, visit the MPI Data Hub to view an interactive map showing geographic distribution of immigrants by state and county, available online.Source: MPI tabulation of data from U.S. Census Bureau pooled 2013–17 ACS. The subsequent waves consisted mostly of their family members and working-class individuals. Click here for an interactive map that highlights the metropolitan areas with the highest concentrations of immigrants from the Caribbean and other countries. Migration, after all, is a fundamental part of the Caribbean experience. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, the book discusses: * the causes of migration * the … The 1966 Cuban Adjustment Act (CAA) and the 1994 and 1995 U.S.-Cuba Migration Accords set the groundwork for what eventually became known as the “wet-foot, dry-foot” policy, which provided a pathway to legal permanent residency after one year of residence for Cubans who reached the United States via land, with or without a valid visa. 2017 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics. These policies led to large increases in the U.S. Cuban population. Almost 50,000 Caribbeans (black and white) settled in the country between 1941 and 1950. 2018. U.S. Census Bureau. Immediate relatives of U.S. citizens: Includes spouses, minor children, and parents of U.S. citizens. Considered as refugees, Cubans reaching U.S. soil were also eligible to receive social services and public benefits to facilitate their initial integration. Christopher Columbus first discovered the Caribbean in 1492 while trying to find a new route to China from Spain. Figure 5. Some Haitian immigrants who have been in the United States since a massive 2010 earthquake devastated Haiti were granted Temporary Protected Status (TPS) to remain in the United States. 6 Available online. In the late 18th century, Britain moved soldiers and sailors to the Caribbean to defend against invasion by competing European powers and guard against anti-slavery revolutions and protests. Caribbean immigrants are much more likely to be insured than the overall foreign-born population. Indentured labour from India and China started in the 19th century. The foundation of Caribbean culture was based on the forced migration of African people, indentured east-Indian workers, the migration and colonization’s of European powers like the Spanish, British, and French. Bonham Richardson made contributions to Caribbean migration research in his earlier work on labor mobility in Guyana (Richardson 1975). Court of Vice Admiralty proclamation on Charles Hamilton. Only a small portion of the enslaved - less than half a million - were sent to North America. Miami-Dade County in Florida was home to 862,000 Caribbean immigrants, the highest among all U.S. counties, followed by much smaller numbers in Kings County (291,000) and Bronx County (277,000) in New York, and Broward County (265,000) in Florida. Annual Remittances Data, December 2018 update. It is important to stress the heterogeneity of the region which is reflected on a composition of … Immigrants from Trinidad and Tobago were most likely to be employed in management, business, science, and arts occupations (37 percent); while those from Haiti (38 percent) and the Dominican Republic (34 percent) were the mostly like to be in service occupations. Many people also migrated from the Caribbean and people convicted of crimes were sometimes transported to Australia and England. Available online. On average, household incomes of Caribbean immigrants are lower than the overall foreign- and native-born populations. The foreign-born population includes naturalized citizens, lawful permanent residents, refugees and asylees, legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization. He landed on an island in what is now known to be the Bahamas, called Guanahani by the natives living there. According to August 2018 data from U.S. The top three Caribbean countries by DACA participation were Jamaica (2,590 recipients), the Dominican Republic (2,330), and Trinidad and Tobago (1,840). Accessed February 1, 2019. Caribbean Migration and History - Oakland Campus: Primary & Secondary Sources This guide is intended for doing library and Internet research on Caribbean history with emphasis on Caribbean migration. U.S. Note: Pooled 2013–17 ACS data were used to get statistically valid estimates at the state level for smaller-population geographies. Beginning in the 16th century, many were killed or expelled from the islands by European forces. More than half (54 percent) of Caribbean immigrants arrived prior to 2000, followed by 24 percent between 2000 and 2009, and 22 percent in 2010 or later (see Figure 6). Barbados, 1873 Cat ref: CO 321/1/14 f 99 Crown Copyright. Distribution of Caribbean Immigrants by Country of Origin, 2017. Caribbean immigrants participate in the labor force at the same rate as the overall foreign-born population. The U.S. Census Bureau defines the foreign born as individuals who had no U.S. citizenship at birth. In 2017, about 59 percent of Caribbean immigrants were naturalized citizens, compared to 49 percent of the total foreign-born population. Click here for an interactive chart showing changes in the number of immigrants from the Caribbean in the United States over time. The first wave of large-scale voluntary migration from the Caribbean to the United States began in the first half of the 20th century and consisted mostly of laborers, including guest workers from the British West Indies program who worked in U.S. agriculture in the mid-1940s, as well as political exiles from Cuba. Employed Workers in the Civilian Labor Force (ages 16 and older) by Occupation and Origin, 2017. Source: Migration Policy Institute (MPI) tabulation of data from the U.S. Census Bureau 2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Click here to view an interactive map showing where migrants from Caribbean island nations and other countries have settled worldwide. Caribbean immigrants are more likely to be naturalized U.S. citizens than immigrants overall. The growth rate declined gradually afterwards. Visit the MPI Data Hub collection of interactive remittances tools, which track remittances by inflow and outflow, between countries, and over time. intraregional migration flows, and experiences considerable return migration. Table 2. Figure 9. Migration Information Source, July 6, 2017. 2 1.1. Available online. Available online. Want to learn more about immigrants to the United States from Mexico, India, Canada, or many other countries? The biggest migration to the Caribbean was a forced migration of enslaved people from Africa through the Transatlantic Slave Trade. IPUMS USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. The level of Caribbean immigration picked up after the United States entered World War II in 1941. 2011. American FactFinder. World Bank. Account of the number of enslaved persons in the colony of Grenada, 1807 Cat ref: CO 101/45 f 190 Crown Copyright. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS. The level of dependence on remittances varies significantly by country: remittances accounted for more than one-quarter (27 percent) of Haiti’s GDP, while the share was much lower in Trinidad and Tobago (0.6 percent) and Grenada (0.1 percent). The Caribbean Sea Migration Collection documents the history of these mariners. Merchants and plantation owners moved into the region. The Caribbean migration context The propensity for Caribbean migration has always been and continues to be high. Around AD 1200 the peaceable Arawaks were happily farming, fishing and minding their own business when the Caribs from South America started fanning out over the Caribbean. • 1492 Spanish discovery of Lucayan Archipelago, Hispaniola and Cuba. Immigrants from Trinidad and Tobago (27 percent) and Jamaica (24 percent) had the highest share of college graduates, while one-third (33 percent) of immigrants from the Dominican Republic did not graduate from high school. Top Concentrations of Caribbean Immigrants by Metropolitan Area, 2013-17. 202-266-1900, IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS ABOUT THIS ARTICLE, CONTACT US AT, National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy, Language Access: Translation and Interpretation Policies and Practices, Latin America & The Caribbean Migration Portal, Illegal Immigration & Interior Enforcement, At the Starting Gate: The Incoming Biden Administration’s Immigration Plans, Visit the MPI Data Hub collection of interactive remittances tools, Dominican Immigrants in the United States, Cuban Immigrants in the United States in 2013, Haitian Immigrants in the United States in 2015, Rebuilding Self and Country: Deportee Reintegration in Jamaica, Cuban Migration: A Postrevolution Exodus Ebbs and Flows, United States Abandons its Harder Line on Haitian Migrants in the Face of Latest Natural Disaster, Normalization of Relations with Cuba May Portend Changes to U.S. Immigration Policy, Select Diaspora Populations in the United States, A Demographic Profile of Black Caribbean Immigrants in the United States. Home Caribbean immigrant adults overall (ages 25 and older) were more likely to have graduated from high school than overall foreign-born adults but had lower share of college graduates. Data collection constraints do not permit inclusion of those who gained citizenship of a Caribbean island nation via naturalization and later moved to the United States. DACA Population Data. Check out our maps. Between SYs 2016-17 and 2017-18, the number of Caribbean students in the United States decreased slightly from 11,400 to 11,300. In 2017, households headed by a Caribbean immigrant had a median income of $47,000, compared to $56,700 and $60,800 for all immigrant and U.S.-born households, respectively. People born in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands instead are included in the definition of U.S. born. Click here for demographic profiles of the unauthorized immigrant population in the United States at national, state, and top county levels. Caribbean Migration Overview The Colonial Period to 1900 The Central American Route Coming to the United States New Waves Reception and Adaptation Change and Continuity View all texts The History of Afro … Dominicans were the most likely to be in poverty (22 percent). Caribbean immigrants were more likely to gain green cards as refugees or asylees (32 percent) compared to the overall LPR population (13 percent; see Figure 7), as a result of the large number of Cuban nationals who have adjusted their status under the fast-track process set by the CAA. Jeanne Batalova is a Senior Policy Analyst at MPI and Manager of the Migration Data Hub. So-called ‘Liberated Africans’ were also indentured during this time. Temporary Protected Status: Overview and Current Issue. Similar to the overall immigrant population, most Caribbean immigrants who obtain green cards do so through family reunification channels. The migration of colonial citizens began slowly. Using data from a variety of sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the United National Population Division, the report begins by briefly discussing the history of migration from Caribbean countries. Most Caribbean immigrants to the United States prior to 1960 were labor migrants, including agricultural workers who came through the British West Indies guest worker program in the mid-1940s, but some were political exiles from Cuba. Many of the merchants who settled in the Caribbean during the 17th and 18th centuries were involved in slave trading. As of October 12, 2017, there was a maximum of 58,557 Haitians who had TPS. One example is Brigands’ War, also known as the Second Carib War (1794 -1798). (Photo: maisa_nyc/Flickr). The Caribbean is both a region of origin, transit, and destination of extra-regional and intraregional migration flows, and experiences considerable cases of return migration. Caribs lived in the Caribbean for thousands of years. He renamed it San Salvador (Holy Saviour). From 1948 when the Empire Windrush arrived until 1952, between 1,000 and 2,000 people entered Britain each year, followed by a steady and rapid rise until 1957, when 42,000 migrants from the New Commonwealth, mainly from the Caribbean, entered. Despite the odds, early Jamaican migrants made their mark in the USA. From 1838 to 1917, over half a million Indians from the former British Raj or British India and Colonial India , were taken to thirteen mainland and island nations in the Caribbean as indentured workers to … 2006. N.d. 2017 American Community Survey (ACS). In 2017, approximately 44 percent of Caribbean immigrants (ages 5 and over) reported limited English proficiency, versus 48 percent of all immigrants. As of 2013-17, the U.S. cities with the largest number of Caribbean immigrants were the greater New York and Miami metropolitan areas. Photograph of the Urgent in a floating dock. Based on demographic models, we reconstruct the complex population history of the Caribbean since the onset of … Sources: Data from U.S. Census Bureau 2010 and 2017 American Community Surveys (ACS); Campbell J. Gibson and Emily Lennon, "Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born Population of the United States: 1850-2000" (Working Paper no. Compared to the total foreign-born population, Caribbean immigrants are less likely to be Limited English Proficient (LEP), have lower educational attainment and income, and have higher poverty rates. Gibson, Campbell J. and Emily Lennon. 2018. Note: Numbers may not add up to 100 as they are rounded to the nearest whole number.Source: MPI tabulation of data from the U.S. Census Bureau 2017 ACS. Caribbean cuisine is varied, but most dishes found in Brooklyn map a history of migration, whether voluntary or because of brutal slavery or indentured servitude. St Kitts, 1816 Cat ref: CO 152/106 Crown Copyright. 202-266-1900. The Dominican Republic received more than half (54 percent) of all remittances sent to the Caribbean, followed by Jamaica (21 percent) and Haiti (20 percent). Access from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. As part of the efforts to normalize U.S.-Cuba diplomatic relationships, President Obama ended the dry-foot part of the policy in early 2017. Many of the merchants who settled in the Caribbean during the 17th and 18th centuries were involved in slave trading. Major sending countries of Caribbean unauthorized immigrants included the Dominican Republic (139,000), Jamaica (92,000), Haiti (57,000), and Trinidad and Tobago (29,000). This can be explained by historical factors as well as factors relating to the limitations of size and therefore of opportunities, in small island environments. The eighties, however, evidenced several important and seminal works (including two … Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born Population of the United States: 1850 to 1990. Accessed February 1, 2019. Acosta, Yesenia and Patricia de la Cruz. All rights reserved. External migration from the Caribbean has continued to increase over the years, with significant levels of migration occurring in countries such as, Jamaica, Guyana, Suriname, and St. Lucia.5 It has been argued that the Caribbean has lost over five million people over the last fifty years. In 2017, the median age of Caribbean immigrants was 49 years, compared to 45 years for all immigrants and 36 years for the U.S. born. Today, Cubans who attempt to enter the United States via land without a visa are considered inadmissible and are subject to deportation. The Caribbean is composed of people from all over the world including those taken there by force and those who migrated freely. Caribbean Immigrants in the United States. No data are available for Anguilla, Bahamas, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Cuba, the former country of Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat, Bonaire, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Turks and Caicos Islands.Source: MPI tabulations of data from the World Bank Prospects Group, “Annual Remittances Data,” December 2018 update. 81, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, February 2006. Approximately 63 percent of Caribbean immigrants in the United States lived in these two metro areas. He subsequently went on to Cuba and Hispaniola, returning to … The Caribbean-derived European component shows significant differentiation from parental Iberian populations, presumably as a result of founder effects during the colonization of the New World. The Foreign Born from Latin America and the Caribbean: 2010. St. Vincent, 1796 Cat ref: CO 260/14 Crown Copyright. 2018. Since people born in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands are native born to the United States, these territories are not included in the list of countries in the Caribbean under the Census Bureau’s definition. (See note below Figure 9 for data limitations.). It takes a comparative perspective on the Caribbean people's migratory experiences to North America, Europe, and within the Caribbean. The terms foreign born and immigrant are used interchangeably and refer to those who were born in another country and later emigrated to the United States. Also, Bermuda had a convict establishment for British (including Irish) convicts. With the notable exception of Jamaica, all major Caribbean nations were under direct U.S. political control at some point, which has created incentives and opportunities for the nationals of these islands to migrate to the United States. In contrast, skilled professionals have consistently constituted a relatively high share of Jamaican immigrants to the United States. Similarly, in 2017, approximately 17 percent of Caribbean immigrants were living in poverty, a higher rate than for the native born (13 percent) and for immigrants overall (15 percent). U.S. Policy Differences for Cuban and Haitian Migrants. Use our interactive maps, with the latest available data, to learn where immigrant populations, by country or region of birth, live in the United States—at state, county, and metro levels. The Spanish were brought here by the avarice for gold and the famed El Dorado; the Africans were abducted from their homelands; the French were displaced by the French Revolution and by the capture of other Caribbean islands by the British; the British came with the colonial establishment, and the impoverished and … The Caribbean countries have historically experienced large-scale incoming and outgoing migration. 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